“Ah, yes. The 'tyrant lizard'. The Tyrannosaurus rex. Favorite of early century fiction writers and adolescent children everywhere. And why? Because it represents everything we fear about the past. It's what we believe that we've conquered, even though it ceased to exist before humanity had reached the proto-ape stage. And that was true. Until now. Until you.”
- - Dr. Ian Malcolm
Tyrannosaurus rex, or simply T. rex, is a large species of theropod dinosaur that originated from Late Cretaceous North America. A large bipedal predator, Tyrannosaurus was one of the first dinosaurs cloned on Isla Sorna by InGen, as the centrepiece of the original Jurassic Park on Isla Nublar. After the abandonment of the park and the subsequent creation of Jurassic World, Tyrannosaurus became one of the park's most popular, and deadly, attractions.
Tyrannosaurus is unlocked on Isla Tacaño, and can subsequently be found in several dig sites across North America. A territorial and powerful predator, T. rex prefer an enclosure to themselves, and quickly become stressed when placed with another large carnivore, which can often result in deadly territorial duels.
One of the last species of non-avian dinosaur to evolve before the end of the Cretaceous period, Tyrannosaurus was first cloned by InGen on Isla Sorna in the early 1990s, with a single adult T. rex present on Isla Nublar, and six on Sorna. Intended as the main attraction at Jurassic Park, the large female Tyrannosaurus was placed in an enclosure in the east of the island, where it was eventually intended to be joined by a juvenile. In 1993, however, during the fateful inspection of the Park, the Tyrannosaurus escaped from its exhibit due to a power outage and was given free reign across the island.
Upon killing two of the Park's escaped Velociraptors, the T. rex was left unrivaled among the carnivores present on Isla Nublar, and established a territory which covered much of the island. In 1994, a team sent to Isla Nublar, reported that the T. rex was responsible for numerous attacks against the island's herds of Gallimimus and Parasaurolophus, and had attempted to hunt the massive Brachiosaurus.
In 1997, a breeding pair of Tyrannosaurs and their infant was encountered on Isla Sorna, by an InGen team sent to pillage the island and establish a new dinosaur park on the mainland. Despite being responsible for numerous deaths, the male Tyrannosaurus and its infant were captured and shipped to San Diego as the main attraction of Jurassic Park: San Diego. In what became known as the San Diego Incident, the buck escaped onto the streets of the city, causing numerous fatalities before being lured back to the San Diego Docks, where it was eventually transported back to Isla Sorna.
Soon after the incident, InGen was purchased by Masrani Global, which began construction of Jurassic World on Isla Nublar. In violation of the Gene Guard Act, which forbade the cloning of new prehistoric animals, as well as access to Isla Sorna, one hundred days after InGen was purchased, scientists on Sorna bred several new species of dinosaur, including a fearsome Spinosaurus.
In 2001, the survivors of a plane crash on Sorna witnessed the fiercely territorial Spinosaur kill a T. rex, which had entered its territory. The introduction of the Spinosaurus, and numerous other species of dinosaur, severely damaged the ecosystem of Isla Sorna, prompting Masrani to transport the surviving animals to Isla Nublar in 2004. It is unknown if any of Sorna's Tyrannosaurs were rescued, though by 2015, Jurassic World exhibited only the animal bred for the original park.
In 2002, this T. rex was captured by InGen Security, and eventually housed in an exhibit upon the grand opening of the park in 2004. As with the original park, Jurassic World marketed the Tyrannosaurus as its main attraction, depicting its likeness on official merchandise. The specimen was known by park workers as "Rexy". However, by 2015, with attendance slipping, Dr. Henry Wu used the base genome of a Tyrannosaurus, hybridised with Velociraptor and numerous other species of prehistoric and modern animals, to create the Indominus rex.
When the Indominus escaped from its enclosure, park operations officer Claire Dearing released the T. rex from her enclosure, resulting in a vicious fight between the two predators. Although the T. rex was overpowered by the hybrid, it managed to defeat the Indominus due to the efforts of a Velociraptor and a Mosasaurus. After the incident, which resulted in the abandonment of Jurassic World, the T. rex became wild on Isla Nublar once more. Several months later, a team of mercenaries sent to the island to recover a bone of the Indominus narrowly escaped an encounter with the T. rex.
Three years later, during the volcanic eruption of Mount Sibo, the T. rex was involved in a stampede of dinosaurs fleeing the destruction, where she killed a Carnotaurus. Rexy was subsequently captured by mercenaries sent by Eli Mills, who brought her and the surviving dinosaurs to Lockwood manor in northern California, where they were intended to be auctioned off to the highest bidder.
However, after the auction was disrupted, the T. rex and the other dinosaurs were later released from their cages into the wilds. The T. rex promptly killed Mills, before moving off into the forest. After a period of time, she made her way to a nearby zoo and entered the enclosure of a lion, bellowing aggressively toward the mammal.
“A T. rex will always draw attention, but I shouldn't have to remind you how dangerous they can be. The world has never seen a more alpha predator.”
- - Dr. Kajal Dua
Tyrannosaurus rex is a species of tyrannosaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Period. It lived throughout western North America at the end of the Cretaceous period, alongside Triceratops, Edmontosaurus, Ankylosaurus, and Pachycephalosaurus, making it one of the latest species of non-avian dinosaur to evolve prior to the great extinction 65 million years ago. The base genome of the Tyrannosaurus bred for Jurassic World are primarily dark brown, though other variants are known to exist.
Behaviour and TraitsEdit
Tyrannosaurus is a powerful carnivorous dinosaur representing one of the pinnacles of the Hammond Foundation's operations in the Muertes Archipelago. A temperamental species in comparison to other dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurs do not tolerate variations from their preferred environment, which should ideally consist of a mix between open grassland to roam, and open forests, from which they can ambush their prey. If their enclosure fails to meet these requirements, the T. rex may become stressed and attempt to escape.
Unlike other large carnivores such as the Spinosaurus and the Giganotosaurus, though similar to the Indominus rex, Tyrannosaurus are content with solitude and become stressed when placed in an enclosure with another member of their species. This will result in an often fatal fight for dominance. If more than one Tyrannosaurus is kept together, it is best to exhibit them in a large enclosure so they can establish separate territories. Similar clashes, often to the death, can occur between similarly sized carnivores such as Spinosaurus, while heavily armored herbivores such as Stegosaurus, Ankylosaurus and Triceratops are more than capable of fighting back.
Perhaps the best known of all dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus was truly a tyrannical predator. It had a bite force of almost 6000 kg of pressure, making it one of the most powerful predators that has ever walked the Earth. It could reach lengths of 41 feet, and could grow to 13 feet tall. Its teeth are actually blunt, and relied more on the bite force than a serrated edge like other predatory dinosaurs. Its bite force was powerful enough to crush bone. Scientists also say it also ate the bones.
For much of the twentieth century, Tyrannosaurus was regarded as a primitive, murderous beast that roamed the jungle as a solitary hunter. However, this concept has since been dropped, as deep lacerations in the skulls of many specimens suggest the animal fought others of its own kind on a regular basis, and likely hunted in small groups, probably family packs.
It lived alongside large herbivores like Ankylosaurus and Edmontosaurus, the latter likely being a regular prey item for the active hunter, as well as the famous Triceratops. They are found coexisting with a sauropod about the size of an Argentinosaurus, called Alamosaurus. Of course, alone, they would never attack an adult but instead attack juveniles. A family group can attack a sick or old individual. Tyrannosaurus was the perfect predator of large prey, it had ideal stereoscopic vision, with forward facing eyes of a hunter. It was probably an opportunist, taking food where it found it, dead or alive.
- Tyrannosaurus was the eighteenth dinosaur to receive a Species Profile, on 15 May 2018. Despite being identified by its specific name T. rex, it was incorrectly described as a ‘genus’ of theropod dinosaur.
- Tyrannosaurus is the most prolific dinosaur in the Jurassic Park series, appearing in novels, films and games across the franchise, including Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis, considered by many to be Jurassic World Evolution's spiritual predecessor.
- The base genome of the T. rex in Jurassic World Evolution is based on the female Tyrannosaurus from the original Jurassic Park, as well as the Jurassic World movies, identified as "Rexy" in the official tie-in novel The Evolution of Claire. Rexy was commonly used in the fandom beforehand, based on Robert Muldoon's nickname for the animal in the original novel. Other fans refer to the animal as "Roberta", which originated in the storyboards for the first film.
- In reality, many palaeontologists believe that Tyrannosaurus was, at some stage of its life cycle, at least partially feathered. A report in 2017 analyzed skin impressions and concluded that large-bodied tyrannosaurs were more likely covered in scales, and that if feathers existed, they were limited to the dorsum in adult specimens. However, this is not scientific consensus, as the skin impressions are small and located in areas that are known to lack feathers in many other feathered genera. The definitive presence of feathers in other large tyrannosaurids, such as Yutyrannus, leaves the possibility open for a feathered Tyrannosaurus.
- The Tyrannosaurus in game is almost 2 meters longer and 1.3 meters taller than Sue, the largest known Tyrannosaurus specimen. In response to community feedback, the size of the T. rex will be reduced from 14 metres to 13.5 metres in a future game update.
- The coloration of the coastal pattern skin for the T. rex is similar to its description in the original novel, which described it as having mottled red-brown and dark brown skin.
- The coloration of the tundra pattern skin for the T. rex bears a resemblance to the male T. rex from The Lost World: Jurassic Park.
- T. rex is the only known species of Tyrannosaurus. Originally, the closely related Tarbosaurus was considered to be a species of Tyrannosaurus before being reclassified.
- ↑ http://islanublar.jurassicworld.com/dinosaurs/tyrannosaurus-rex/
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 http://www.dinosaurprotectiongroup.com/what-killed-the-gene-guard-act.html Dinosaur Protection Group - What Killed the Gene Guard Act
- ↑ JurassicWorld.com - Park Map Retrieved from http://www.jurassicworld.com/park-map
- ↑ The Lost World: Jurassic Park
- ↑ Jurassic Park III
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Tess Sharpe, The Evolution of Claire https://books.google.ie/books?id=LnRCDwAAQBAJ&dq=evolution+of+claire&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjCz8zh4Y_cAhWkKMAKHcnQCd4Q6AEIKTAA
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Jurassic World
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom
- ↑ Jurassic World Evolution
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 IGN, How Jurassic World Evolution Made Its T.Rex, available http://ie.ign.com/articles/2018/05/16/how-jurassic-world-evolution-made-its-trex-ign-first
- ↑ https://youtu.be/r5L7Iokg5RY Species Profile: Tyrannosaurus Rex
- ↑ Jurassic Park
- ↑ Science. World’s only fossils of T. rex skin suggest it was covered in scales—not feathers. Accessed http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/06/world-s-only-fossils-t-rex-skin-suggest-it-was-covered-scales-not-feathers, 18 April 2018
- ↑ The Reality of the New T.rex Scale Impressions https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CxE68c9rYa0
- ↑ https://www.reddit.com/r/jurassicworldevo/comments/97thp3/important_news_about_dinosaur_sizes/
Tyrannosaurus on Wikipedia